Archivio Storico:- ex Dipartimento di Musica e Spettacolo - Universita' di Bologna Notes 1d

NOTES on "Colourful Metaphor":


(1) A. Bazin, What is Cinema?, Vol. I (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967), transl. H. Gray, p. 20. 

(2) Gorky's account is included as an appendix in J.  Leyda, Kino: A History of the Russian and Soviet Film  (London: Allen & Unwin, 1960), pp. 407-409.

(3) See the discussion of the introduction of color in  the Hollywood film industry in D. Bordwell, J. Staiger,  K, Thompson, The Classical Hollywood Cinema: Film  Style and Mode of Production to 1960 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985), pp.

(4) L. F. Baum, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (New  York: Books of Wonder, 1987), originally published in  1900, p. 12. This edition is the only modern one I know  of to preserve the colors of the original.

(5) For a placing of Baum in relation to a new commercial American culture, see W. Leach, Land of Desire:  Merchants, Power, and the Rise of a New American Culture  (New York: Pantheon Books, 1993), p. 59. For a description and interpretation of Baum's theories of window dressing, see S. Culver, "What Manikins Want: The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and The Art of Decorating Dry  Goods Windows," Representations, n. 21 (Winter 1988),  pp. 97-116.

(6) Leach, p. 45.

(7) Godkin's editorial is discussed in P. C. Marzio, The  Democratic Art: Pictures for a Nineteenth Century America  (Boston: David R. Godine, 1979), pp. 1-2.

(8) Prang is quoted in N. Harris, "Color and Media,  Some Comparisons and Speculations," in Cultural Excursions: Marketing Appetites and Cultural Tastes in Modern America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990),  pp. 320-321, and discussed in Marzio, pp. 94-106.

(9) Marzio, p. 105.

(10) These debates are summarized in Harris, p. 320.

(11) For an insightful critique of the Columbian Exposition's relation to American culture, see A. Tratchtenberg, The Incorporation of American: Culture and Society  in the Gilded Age (New York: Hill R Wang, 1982), pp.  208-234.

(12) A good survey of the history of the American  comic strip with an excellent selection of reprints is B. Blackbeard and M. Williams (eds.), The Smithsonian Collection of Newspaper Comics (Washington and New York:  Smithsonian Institution Press and Harry N. Abrams,  1977).

(13) Quoted in S. Kanfer, "From the Yellow Kid to Yellow Journalism," Civilization: The Magazine of the Library of Congress, Vol. 2, no. 3 (May-June, 1995), p. 34.  As Kanfer points out, the Yellow Kid first appeared in  Pulitzer's World and then his author Richard Outcault  was wooed to Hearst's rival Journal. The battle between  these newspaper titans over the Kid and its author led to  the first use of the term "Yellow Journalism."

(14) A useful survey of pulps with many fine color re-  productions of their covers is L. Server, Danger is My  Business: An Illustrated History of the Fabulous Pulp Mag-  azines, 1896-1953 (San Francisco: Chronicle Books,  1993).

(15) T. C. McLuan, Dream Tracks: The Railway and the  American Indian, 1890-1930 (New York: Harry N.  Abrams, 1985), pp. 39-40.

(16) Photo-Miniature, no. 44 (November 1902), p. 357, quoted in McLuan, p. 40.

(17) R. Marchant, Advertising the American Dream: Making Way for Modernity 1920-1940 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985), p. 122.

(18) Guerin quoted in Leach, p. 77.

(19) See the publicity bulletins for these films reproduced in E, Bowser (ed.), Biograph Bulletins 1908-1912 (New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 1973), pp. 27, 17, 20 and 39.

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Archivio Storico:- ex Dipartimento di Musica e Spettacolo - Universita' di Bologna